Indonesia Currency 10000 Rupiah banknote 1998 Cut Nyak Dhien

Indonesia Currency 10000 Rupiah banknote 1998 Cut Nyak Dhien
Indonesia money currency 10000 Rupiah banknote 1998 Segara Anak Volcanic Lake

Currency of Indonesia 10000 Rupiah banknote 1998 Cut Nyak Dhien
Bank Indonesia - central bank of the Republic of Indonesia

Obverse: Depicting National Heroine, Tjut Njak Dhien. The National emblem of Indonesia (Garuda Pancasila) at upper right area.
Reverse: Segara Anak Volcanic Lake at center right.

Watermark: W. R. Soepratman.
Signed by: J. Soedrajad Djiwandono - Mukhlis Rasyid.
Size: 148 x 72 mm.
Dominant Color
  Front Side: Brown / Violet.
  Back Side: Brown / Violet.
Printer: Perum Peruri (Perum Percetakan Uang Republik Indonesia, Money Printing Public Company of the Republic of Indonesia).
Emission Date: 18 February 1998.




Cut Nyak Dhien
Cut Nyak Dhien or Tjoet Nja' Dhien (1848, Lampadang – November 6, 1908, Sumedang) was a leader of the Acehnese guerrilla forces during the Aceh War. Following the death of her husband Teuku Umar, she led guerrilla actions against the Dutch for 25 years. She was posthumously awarded the title of National Hero of Indonesia on May 2, 1964 by the Indonesian government.

Early life
Cut Nyak Dhien was born into an Islamic aristocratic family in Aceh Besar in VI mukim district in 1848. Her father, Teuku Nanta Setia, was a member of the ruling Ulèë Balang aristocratic class in VI mukim, and her mother was also from an aristocrat family. She was educated in religion and household matters. She was renowned for her beauty, and many men proposed to her until her parents arranged for her marriage to Teuku Cek Ibrahim Lamnga, the son of an aristocratic family, when she was twelve.

Aceh War
On 26 March 1873, the Dutch declared war on Aceh, beginning the Aceh War. During the first part of this war, the First Aceh Expedition, Aceh was led by Panglima Polem and Sultan Alauddin Mahmud Syah II. The Dutch army sent 3,000 soldiers led by Johan Harmen Rudolf Köhler to take the Sultan's palace. The Sultan, however, received military aid from Italy and the United Kingdom, and the Aceh army was rapidly modernized and enlarged from 10,000 to 100,000 soldiers. Dutch forces were successfully pushed back, and Köhler died in action.
  In November 1873, during the Second Aceh Expedition the Dutch successfully captured VI mukim in 1873, followed by the Sultan's Palace in 1874. In 1875, Cut Nyak Dhien and her baby, along with other mothers, were evacuated to a safer location while her husband Ibrahim Lamnga fought to reclaim VI mukim.
  Teuku Ibrahim Lamnga died in action in Gle Tarum on June 29, 1878. Upon hearing this, Cut Nyak Dhien swore revenge against the Dutch.
  Some time after the death of her husband, an Acehnese hero Teuku Umar proposed to her. Although she rejected him at first, she accepted his proposal when Umar allowed her to fight, and they were married in 1880. This greatly boosted the morale of Aceh armies in their fight against the Kaphé Blanda, or Dutch infidel. Teuku Umar and Cut Nyak Dhien had a daughter together named Cut Gambang. Dhien was very determined to stay in the war so took her daughter in with her.
  The war continued, and the Acehnese declared a holy war against the Dutch, engaging in guerrilla warfare and attacking with traps and ambushes. Undersupplied, Teuku Umar surrendered to Dutch forces on September 30, 1893 along with 250 of his men. The Dutch army welcomed him and appointed him as a commander, giving him the title of Teuku Umar Johan Pahlawan. However, Teuku Umar secretly planned to betray the Dutch. Two years later Teuku Umar set out to assault Aceh, but instead departed with his troops, heavy equipment, weapons, and ammunition, using these supplies to help the Acehnese. This is recorded in Dutch history as "Het verraad van Teukoe Oemar" (the treason of Teuku Umar).
  Teuku Umar and Dhien kept resisting the Dutch with their new equipment until the Dutch sent the Maréchaussée. The Acehnese found these troops extremely difficult to resist and many people were killed.
  The Dutch general Johannes Benedictus van Heutsz took advantage of the condition and sent a spy to Aceh. Teuku Umar was killed during battle when the Dutch launched a surprise attack on him in Meulaboh. When Cut Gambang cried over his death, Cut Nyak Dhien reportedly slapped her and then she hugged her and said:"As Acehnese women, we may not shed tears for those who have been martyred."
  After her husband died, Cut Nyak Dhien continued to resist the Dutch with her small army until its destruction in 1901, as the Dutch adapted their tactics to the situation in Aceh. Furthermore, Cut Nyak Dhien suffered from nearsightedness and arthritis as she got older. The number of her troops kept decreasing and they suffered from a lack of supplies.
  One of her men, Pang Laot, told the Dutch the location of her headquarters in Beutong Le Sageu. The Dutch assaulted, catching Dhien and her troops by surprise. Despite desperately fighting back, Dhien was captured, but her daughter Cut Gambang escaped and continued the resistance.

Later life and death
Dhien was brought to Banda Aceh and her myopia and arthritis slowly healed. She was sent into exile to Sumedang, West Java because the Dutch were afraid she would mobilize the resistance of Aceh people. In May 2, 1964 she was posthumously proclaimed a National Hero by President Soekarno.

Legacy
The Cut Nyak Dhien Airport in Nagan Raya Regency, Aceh is named after her.
The film Tjoet Nja' Dhien written and directed by Eros Djarot won the award for the best international film at the Cannes Film Festival in 1989.


Segara Anak Volcanic Lake
Segara Anak is a crater lake in the caldera that formed during the explosive volcanic eruption of Mount Samalas in 1257 CE. The caldera is next to Mount Rinjani on Lombok Island in Indonesia. "Segara Anak" means "child of the sea" and refers to the blue lake's resemblance to the sea. The volcanic cone Gunung Baru Jari is at the western end of the lake and is responsible for its crescent shape. The lake temperature is 20–22 °C (68–72 °F), which is 5-7 °C (9-13 °F) higher than normal for a lake at its altitude. Hot magma below the lake is responsible for this anomaly. Gas bubbles escape from the lake floor, helping the lake to have a pH of 7-8.
  The surface of Segara Anak is 2,004 metres (6,575 ft) above mean sea level (AMSL) and is Indonesia's second-highest caldera lake with an active volcano. The peak of Gunung Baru Jari is 2,376 metres (7,795 ft) AMSL. The lake covers 45 square kilometres (17 sq mi), with dimensions of 7.5 by 6.0 kilometres (4.7 by 3.7 mi), and has a maximum depth of 230 metres (750 ft).

Mount Samalas
The estimated height of Mount Samalas before its 1257 eruption was 4,200 metres (13,800 ft). According to a 2013 study, the eruption destroyed the mountain by ejecting up to 10 cubic miles (42 km3) of rock into the atmosphere. The eruption was one of the largest during the last few thousand years, with a probable Volcanic Explosivity Index of 7. The eruption may have been the cause of anomalous weather for a few years and may have even been a triggering factor for the Little Ice Age.