Norwegian Currency 500 Krone banknote 2018 Rescue Vessel RS 14 Stavanger

Norwegian Currency 500 Krone banknote 2018 Rescue Vessel RS 14 Stavanger
Norwegian Currency Money 500 Krone banknote 2018

Currency of Norway 500 Krone note 2018 Rescue Vessel RS 14 Stavanger
Central Bank of Norway - Norges Bank
On "The sea that gives us prosperity", the theme for the 500-krone banknote

Obverse: The primary motif on the 500-krone note is the rescue vessel RS 14 "Stavanger", designed by Norway's most famous shipbuilder, Colin Archer.
  The vessel was built at Archer's shipyard in Larvik and launched in 1901. It had a total of 37 years of active duty for Redningsselskapet (Norwegian Society for Sea Rescue). The primary motif on the note is designed on the basis of Redningsselskapet's photo, taken by Robby Madsen.
  The sea holds vast natural resources, but is also characterised by powerful forces. Storms and wrecks are a fact of life for those who seek to harvest the riches of the sea. The availability of help when it is needed most saves many lives, and gives us greater confidence when we set sail for work or pleasure.
  Today, Redningsselskapet's operations are run from tens of stations spread across the entire country. More than 40 rescue vessels are at the ready 24 hours a day the year round along the entire coast.
  In the upper-right corner of the banknote you can see an Atlantic puffin. The head of a puffin and the value of the banknote are also featured in the watermark used on all the denominations.

Reverse: In the pattern of the 500-krone note an oil platform vaguely appears on the horizon. There are high winds and the rectangular forms are longer than on the 200-krone note.
  The sea heaps up in the organic pattern. You can also see the North Sea gas pipeline network and a fossil.
  The gas pipeline system is a stylised rendition (white lines) of portions of the system for gas transport from Norway to other countries, a design element based on information from Gassco's website in August 2016.
  Shipping, fisheries and other activities associated with the sea have long been the basis of economic growth and prosperity in Norway. In the last 50 years, oil and gas activity has become one of the pillars of the Norwegian economy,
  The activities have positive spillover effects both nationally and locally. Technological innovations have followed, providing small local communities with additional legs to stand on.
  The ability to build new expertise and new industries from what we have learned through harvesting Norway's natural resources can be decisive for future economic developments.

Watermark: When the banknote is held up to the light, the watermark, the head of an Atlantic puffin with the denomination 500, is visible. The Atlantic puffin motif is featured on all the denominations.
Security thread: When the banknote is held up to the light, the security thread is visible as a dark line running through the paper. The security thread bears the text "NB" and the value of the banknote, 500, in small print.
Anchor chain: On the right-hand side of the banknote, you can see three segments of an anchor chain integrated into the paper. When you tilt the note, the chain appears to move.
Floating ring: In the lower-left corner of the note, there is a rectangle containing a ring. When you tilt the banknote in different directions, the ring appears to float and you can see a play of colours.
Paper quality: The banknotes are printed on cotton paper, which feels different from ordinary paper. The cotton paper has been treated with a dirt-resistant coating, which gives it a smooth surface.
Raised print: The primary motif and a number of details on the front are printed in raised print, which can be felt.
Markings for the blind and visually impaired: There are raised lines printed along the short edges of the notes to enable the blind and the visually impaired to distinguish between the denominations. The higher the value, the more lines. On the 500-krone banknote, there are four groups of four lines, or 16 lines altogether.

Size: 147 x 70 mm.
Valid from 18.10.2018.

On "The sea that gives us prosperity", the theme for the 500-krone banknote
  For centuries, shipwrecks along Norway's rugged coastline were daily tragedies, claiming thousands of lives over the years. As international trade increased in importance, the need for an organised rescue service along the coast became more urgent. It would be modelled on the local lifeboat stations and the teams of volunteers aiding shipwrecked sailors and vessels in distress established in England, Holland and other European seafaring nations in the 1800s.
  A government lifeboat service, Statens Redningsvesen, was established as a department under the lighthouse directorate in 1857. Government lifeboat stations were established at Lista and Jæren, two stretches of coastline that were exposed to the open sea, with no archipelago. The technological solution of land-based stations was not a good fit for the rest of the Norwegian coast, and although rescue equipment was deployed at some lighthouse stations, this was found to be inadequate. Because of the large number of drownings in the fishing and shipping industries, a private initiative was taken in 1891 to form the Norsk Selskab til Skibbrudnes Redning [Norwegian society for rescue at sea].
  The most important contribution to the newly formed society was establishing the principle that Norway had to have a marine rescue service based on vessels that could operate in the roughest conditions and crews that were capable of meeting the challenge when lives were at stake. In 1892, the rescue service held a competition for the design of a suitable type of fishing smack and funded the construction of the first two boats. Boat builder and designer Colin Archer was one of the competition judges. He was actively involved in the issue of maritime safety. Archer's decked pilot boats had proved successful and he wanted to construct a lifeboat that was designed to withstand the most extreme weather conditions. The winning entry did not completely satisfy the jury, and Archer was commissioned to modify the design.
  Construction of the first three lifeboats was begun before the competition and Archer's modification of the winning design had been completed. The first boat built to the design modified by Archer was given the number RS 1 and named the Colin Archer at its launch in August 1893. The Colin Archer now belongs to the Norwegian Maritime Museum in Oslo and is still sailing.
  A total of 35 rescue lifeboats were built over the next 30 years. Thirty of these were designed by Colin Archer and, owing to their sailing performance and achievements at sea, Archer lifeboats gained an international reputation as some of the best and safest sailing vessels in existence.
  The rescue lifeboats' most important quality and advantage was their sailing performance and seaworthiness. Before the era of radio communications, the main job of the "sailing rescue service" was to accompany the fishing fleet out to sea and assist sailors and their vessels as needed. Not least, it was important to be able to tow fishing vessels safely to harbour when a storm blew up, especially in off-shore winds. Without the help of a rescue lifeboat, the small, open, square-rigged fishing vessels risked being blown out to sea.
  Because of the superior seaworthiness of the lifeboats compared with the more primitive fishing fleet, motorised rescue lifeboats were not a priority until technological advances changed the service itself. Radio communication came into use in fishing vessels in the 1920s. As a result, rescue lifeboats could remain in harbour to a greater extent, ready to respond when needed.
  Solely sail-driven rescue lifeboats were gradually replaced by fully motorised, high-speed vessels with the same excellent sailing performance and high level of operational reliability. Throughout the history of the service, rescue lifeboats have been designed and built to the highest standards. Today, the maritime history of the rescue service is a vital part of Norway's maritime heritage.
  Ship's doctor Oscar Tybring (1847-1895) is regarded as the father of the Norwegian lifeboat rescue service. From its inception and until his death, Tybring worked tirelessly as organiser, lobbyist and educator. The service evolved rapidly, as a professional rescue service and as an idealistic popular movement. Not least, Oscar Tybring enlisted the help of coastal women, who knew what it meant to have loved ones at sea. They became the backbone of an initiative to build an organisation by recruiting members and establishing local branches. The local branches ran educational programmes and raised money to keep the service itself in operation. In time, the government became an important source of funding, but the work done by volunteers is still crucial to maintaining a high-quality nationwide sea rescue service.
  Today, the Norwegian Society for Sea Rescue operates from more than 50 stations around the country. More than 40 rescue lifeboats are on stand-by 24 hours a day, all year round. Over the past decades, rescue callouts to the large number of pleasure boats in Norway have become an important part of operations. The service now has a very varied fleet of modern, high-speed and technically advanced vessels of different sizes and types, depending on the type of waters and the kind of rescues the lifeboat will be involved in. Our lifeboat stations perform more than 6 000 lifeboat launches a year. Since its inception, the Norwegian Society for Sea Rescue has saved the lives of more than 6 000 people. Around 3 000 vessels have been recovered, and more than 100 000 vessels and almost half a million people have received assistance.

The oil platform – reverse motif
  The petroleum industry is very important as a source of government revenues, in terms of investment and as a share of total GDP. The extraction of oil and gas has been a crucial contributor to welfare and prosperity in Norway.
  The Norwegian oil era started in earnest with the discovery of the Ekofisk oil field in 1969. The day before Christmas Eve, 1969, the US oil company Phillips Petroleum informed the Norwegian authorities of the discovery of an enormous oil field in the southern part of the North Sea. Ekofisk would prove to be one of the largest subsea oil fields ever discovered. The oil field was brought on stream on 15 June 1971 and was to be followed by a number of other major oil discoveries in the years to come.
  In the 1970s, exploration activity was concentrated around the areas south of Stadt (latitude 62⁰ North). The shelf was opened up gradually – only a limited number of blocks were announced in each licensing round. The areas that seemed most promising were explored first. Discoveries were made on a global scale, and oil from the Norwegian continental shelf has mostly been produced by large fields such as Ekofisk, Statfjord, Oseberg, Gullfaks and Troll. Several of these fields are still important to the petroleum industry in Norway. In 1979, the go-ahead was given for petroleum activity north of 62⁰ North. Subsea exploration in parts of the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea started in the early 1980s, and the areas of exploration were gradually expanded. Production in the Norwegian Sea started in 1993 and in the Barents Sea in 2007.
  The Government Pension Fund Global (GPFG), popularly known as the oil fund, was set up in 1990. The fund's main task is to save government petroleum revenues for future generations. The revenues are invested abroad. The fund's market value in 2018 is more than NOK 8 000 billion.
  Activity on the Norwegian continental shelf is expected to remain a key element of the Norwegian economy for several decades to come. This means that the economy will continue to be exposed to oil and gas price volatility – conditions we can do little to influence. Price falls have on several occasions posed challenges for the country's economy. At the same time, periods of low prices have also had numerous positive effects: new technology, standardisation and improvements in efficiency. The development of world-leading technology on the Norwegian continental shelf has made the oil industry one of Norway's most important export industries. At its peak, in 2013, the oil service industry exported goods and services worth more than NOK 200 billion, four times more than in 2003, and has been an engine of growth and prosperity in numerous coastal communities, above all in western and southern Norway.

Fossils - ammonites – reverse motif on the 500-krone banknote
  Ammonites are a group of extinct octupuses that had an extrnal shell of calcite. As the animal grew, its shell divided into body-chambers and a series of gas-filled chambers, which enabled buoyancy in water masses.
  Thousands of different species of ammonites have existed for several hundred millions of years. Their size ranged from 1 cm to 2.5 meters in diameter. Many species have been found worldwide, it is assumed that they swam about in open water, perhaps transported by ocean currents. In Norway, ammonites have lived on the continental shelf, Svalbard and Andøya.
  Ammonites died out about 65 million years ago.

The rescue lifeboat RS 14 Stavanger
  The lifeboat RS 14 Stavanger, on the front of the new 500-krone banknote, is a classic rescue lifeboat, built by Norway's perhaps most famous naval architect and shipbuilder, Colin Archer. The lifeboat was built at Archer's shipyard in Larvik and launched in 1901. In addition to its 37 years of active service for the Norwegian Society for Sea Rescue from 1901 to 1939, the lifeboat has had an interesting and varied life as a pleasure craft and heritage vessel.
  It is a little unclear why the lifeboat was named Stavanger. Rescue lifeboats were often named after people who had made a significant contribution to the promotion of lifesaving at sea, or after a place, to commemorate a particular incident. Some rescue lifeboats are nonetheless named after towns, possibly because Norwegian shipowners, most of whom lived in towns, gave a regular financial contribution to the Norwegian Society for Sea Rescue according to their ships' tonnage. Or the choice of name may be related to the official application made to the government ministry for naval defence by shipmasters in Stavanger in 1852, requesting the establishment of a lifeboat rescue service for the most dangerous parts of the coast. A third possibility is that the town of Stavanger had distinguished itself during the fundraising campaign that was run to finance this particular vessel.
  The RS 14 Stavanger is 14.35 metres long, with a beam of 4.65 metres and a 2.35 metre draught. Total sail area is 110 square metres, comprising mainsail, foresail, jib, mizzen and topsail. It is designed to be "unsinkable", thanks to an extra inner skin attached to the inside of the frame resulting in a layer of air between the inner and outer skin. The outer skin is made of inch-and-a-half-thick oak. The lifeboat sleeps eight. It was built as a sailing vessel and was not motorised while in the service of the Norwegian Society for Sea Rescue.
  For most of its time as an active rescue lifeboat, the RS 14 Stavanger was stationed at Titran in Trøndelag, a small coastal community on the west coast of Norway that had experienced a catastrophic storm at sea in 1899 that took the lives of more than 100 people.
  The lifeboat's main duties were to be on stand-by, ready to respond during the large-scale seasonal fisheries each winter. But the lifeboat was also used as a means of transport for the doctor and to ferry post and food supplies. The lifeboat was usually laid up in the summer for maintenance and repair.
  During its years of active service, the RS 14 Stavanger and its crew saved the lives of 42 sailors on 12 boats and 11 sailors on 2 ships. In total, 2,976 boats and 20 ships received help in the form of towing or other kinds of assistance.
  In 1939, the Stavanger was bought by Jul. Nielsen for use as a pleasure craft. Nielsen was an experienced and ardent sailor, and the Nielsen family would give the retired lifeboat a new, long lease of life that would bring it to faraway destinations and give it a reputation as the most famous and most admired veteran boat on the Norwegian coast. The Stavanger has sailed over the Atlantic and the North Sea, and in the Baltic and the Mediterranean, as well as along most of the Norwegian coast. Over the years, the boat has undergone meticulous restoration a number of times to preserve the vessel as part of our cultural heritage and as a museum vessel. There are plans to include the Stavanger in a Colin Archer museum in Larvik.

On the watermark – the Atlantic puffin
  The watermark is an important banknote security feature, and appears in grey tones when the note is held up to the light. They grey tones reflect different paper thicknesses. The watermarks of the most recent Norwegian banknote series were the portraits on the banknote. With "The Sea" as the theme of the new banknote series, it was important to find a motif that is relevant to the theme, while sharing the characteristics of a portrait in the form of gradual, or sculptural, transitions. The Atlantic puffin was chosen, a familiar sea bird with a very distinctive appearance.

  The Atlantic puffin is a medium-sized member of the auk family (Alcidae) that is easily recognized by its large and colourful beak. Adults reach 26–29 cm in length and weigh 310–550 g. The sexes are similar in appearance. Besides the puffin's large beak, on the side of each head there is characteristic large area of pale grey, which is separated from the white breast by a black collar. The puffin's upper surface is black, while its underside is white. Its legs and webbed feet are bright orange. The large beak is laterally flattened and has deep grooves in red, yellow and blue. In winter plumage, the sides of the head are darker grey, and the beak is smaller because several horny layers fall off during that season. Juvenile birds resemble the adults in winter plumage, but their beaks are smaller and darker in colour. The Atlantic puffin is generally silent, but in its burrowing ground at the breeding colony, it makes a muffled growling sound.
  The species breeds on both sides of the North Atlantic from the northeastern parts of North America and the British Isles in the south to Greenland, Svalbard and Novaya Zemlya (Russia) in the north. In Europe, the vast majority of puffins breed along the Atlantic Ocean and Norwegian Sea.
  During breeding season, between April and August/September, puffins occupy breeding sites along nesting cliffs. The rest of the year is spent over the open sea. In Norway, puffins breed along the coast from western Norway northwards. Runde island in Sunnmøre is an important breeding site in the southern portion of the breeding range. However, the largest colony is found on Røst island in Lofoten. Colonies there can number up to several hundred thousand birds. Another known breeding site is Lovund on the Helgeland coast. According to folklore, the puffins return each year on the same date, 14 April. This is the beginning of the breeding season and the birds arrive in their thousands.
  The Atlantic puffin is a highly colonial species, typically nesting in underground burrows that are dug in grass-covered soil on offshore islands. Where such habitat is in short supply, like in Svalbard, puffins nest in rock crevices and in holes among stones. The puffin feeds mainly on small schooling fish. Crustaceans, squid and polychaete worms (Nereidae) are also important, especially outside the breeding season. Most puffins search for food in the open sea.