Bolivian Currency 20 Bolivianos banknote 2018

Bolivian Currency 20 Bolivianos banknote 2018 National Heroes - Genoveva Ríos, Tomás Katari and Pedro Ignacio Muiba
Bolivian Currency 20 Bolivianos banknote 2018 Black Caiman

Currency of Bolivia 10 Bolivianos banknote 2018
Central Bank of Bolivia - Banco Central de Bolivia
"Famous Figures of the Liberation Movement & Flora and Fauna & National Heritage"

Obverse: Portraits of National Heroes - Genoveva Ríos, Tomás Katari and Pedro Ignacio Muiba. El Fuerte de Samaipata or Fort Samaipata at center.

Reverse: The Shores of Laguna Bay. The Black Caiman (Caimán negro) and Toborochi tree. The Black Caiman is displayed using optically variable ink, SPARK® Live Rolling Bar.

Watermark: Portraits of Genoveva Ríos, and electrotype 20.
Windowed security thread with demetalized 20 and Genoveva Ríos.
The banknote image elements under a Ultraviolet Light: The Coat of Arms of Bolivia (Plurinational State of Bolivia) and 20.
Colour: Red.
Printer: Oberthur Fiduciaire, France. 
Size: 140 x 70 mm. 
Date of issue: July 3, 2018.

Black CaimanWatermark: Portraits of Genoveva Ríos, and electrotype 20

The banknote image elements under a Ultraviolet Light: The Coat of Arms of Bolivia (Plurinational State of Bolivia) and 20Windowed security thread with demetalized 20 and Genoveva Ríos

Bolivian Currency 20 Bolivianos banknote 2018 Ultraviolet LightBolivia 20 Bolivianos banknote 2018 Ultraviolet Light

Genoveva Ríos
Genoveva Ríos (born 1865) was a Bolivian hero. She defended the Bolivian flag during an invasion by Chile in 1879.
  Ríos was born in Antofagasta in what was then Bolivia in 1865. She came to notice in 1879 at the outbreak of the War of the Pacific. Her town was invaded by Chile on 14 February. Her father had a senior position in the local police. Ríos noticed that the soldiers were seizing flags. She took a Bolivian flag, hid it from the soldiers, and took it to her parents. Her act was reported in the newspaper on 28 February.
  Ríos died in Cochabamba but the year is unknown. Ríos's story is still reported as an example or heroism. Her town is now part of Chile.

Tomás Katari
Tomás Katari or Catari (died January 15, 1781) was a Quechua chief who, in claiming indigenous rights, led a popular uprising in Upper Peru (present-day Bolivia) in the 18th century.

Events leading up to Chayanta rebellion
During the 1770s, the economic and political stability of the Macha community in Upper Peru was continuously disrupted. In 1772, the alcabala (sales tax) was increased from 2 percent to 4 percent. Then in 1774, aduanas (customhouses) were established and the acabala was applied to grain. The acabala was again increased in 1776 to 6 percent and Upper Peru became part of the new viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata. During this economic turmoil, relations between the Indian communities and Spanish colonial officials underwent tension and strain as well.

The Catari rebellion
In 1778, Tomás Catari went to Buenos Aires seeking justice for his people. He envisioned a utopic form of self-government for the Macha community and opposed a violent revolution. During this same year, the Crown furthers tensions by ordering corregidores to collect the 6 percent alcabala.
  In 1779, Tomás Catari is arrested, and the rebellion begins in late August 1780. The Macha community congregated in La Plata demanding that Catari be named cacique. He is imprisoned again but shortly after freed and officially named cacique. During Catari's brief rule of the indigenous community, he sought to change relations between indigenous communities and the colonial state pacifically. The ensuing violence demonstrates some of the limitations of Catari's power.
  In December 1780, Catari was captured by a local miner, Alvares, on orders from the justicia mayor Juan Antonio Acuña. Peasant followers pursued Catari’s captors. Resultingly, Catari was executed at the hands of royalist forces as he was being taken to La Plata. When the rebel forces witnessed the executed they retaliated by killing the justicia mayor (leaving his body unburied and piercing Acuña’s eyes), five other soldiers and eventually Alvares as well.
  Contrary to Catari’s vision, after his death the uprising lost any semblance of reformist experiment against bad authorities and became a struggle between Indians and colonial officials. Tomás’s cousins, Nicolás and Dámaso Catari, then took over leadership, expanding the rebellion to other communities in Upper Peru, and expressed desire to link with Tupac Amaru’s uprising. The rebels targeted the Spanish and creole, regardless of individual affiliations. Damaso and Nicolas were gruesomely executed in La Plata and the cause was then taken up by Julián Apasa, under the name of Túpac Katari.
  Legacy Katari's rebellion could be seen as a stark contrast too that of fellow Native American leader Tupac Amaru, since his way of action was closer to the traditional way of action of the Native Americans of using Spanish methods and institutions to achieve his objectives instead of trying to overrun the system. Due to this method of action his image has not been as used as that of Tupac Amaru by Indian or Latin American nationalist movements.

Pedro Ignacio Muiba
Pedro Ignacio Muiba, was the principal leader of the Trinitario revolt of 1810–1811.

El Fuerte de Samaipata
El Fuerte de Samaipata or Fort Samaipata, also known simply as "El Fuerte", is a Pre-Columbian archaeological site and UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Florida Province, Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia. It is situated in the eastern foothills of the Bolivian Andes and is a popular tourist destination for Bolivians and foreigners alike. It is served by the nearby town of Samaipata. The archaeological site at El Fuerte is unique as it encompasses buildings of three different cultures: Chanè, Inca, and Spanish.
  Although called a fort, Samaipata had also a religious, ceremonial, and residential function. Its construction was probably begun by the Chané, a pre-Inca people of Arawak origin. There are also ruins of an Inca plaza and residences, dating from the late 15th and early 16th centuries as the Inca empire expanded eastward from the Andes highlands into the sub-tropical foothills. Chané, Inca, and Spanish all suffered raids from Guarani (Chiriguano) warriors who also settled in the region. The Guarani conquered the plains and valleys of Santa Cruz and occupied the Samaipata area. The Guaranis dominated the region well into the Spanish colonial period.
  The Spaniards built a settlement at Samaipata fort, and there are remains of buildings of typical Arab Andalusian architecture. The Spaniards soon abandoned the fort and moved to a nearby valley, establishing the town of Samaipata in 1618.

The site of Samaipata was occupied as a ritual and residential area about 300 CE by the Chané of the Mojocoyas period (200 to 800 CE). They began shaping the great rock that is the ceremonial center of the Samaipata ruin.
  According to a 17th-century Spanish chronicler, Diego Felipe de Alcaya, the Incas, probably late in the reign of Tupac Yupanqui (ruled 1471-1493), began the incorporation of the Samaipata area into the empire. A relative of Yupanqui's named Guacane led an Inca army to the area and with elaborate gifts persuaded the local leader, whose title was Grigota, and his 50,000 subjects to submit to Inca rule. Guacane established his capital at Samaipata or Sabay Pata on a mountain top at an elevation of 1,900 metres (6,200 ft). Samaipata means "the heights of rest" in the Quechua language spoken by the Inca.
  Samaipata was an Inca administrative, ceremonial, and religious center. As with other Inca administrative centers on the frontiers of the empire (such as Oroncota), Samaipata was protected by outlying fortresses. One has been located about 50 kilometres (31 mi) to the east called La Fortaleza. The ruins of the fort are on a mountaintop overlooking the lowlands around the present-day city of Santa Cruz. Another fortress. location unknown, called Guanacopampa protected a mine at Saypurú or Caypurum, location also unknown. The Samaipata area was one of the most isolated and easternmost areas of the Inca Empire.
  According to Alcaya's account, Guacane and Grigota were killed in an attack by the Eastern Bolivian Guaraní people called Chiriguanos by the Spanish. The Chiriguanos were advancing from the lowlands into the Andes foothills. A counterattack by the Incas failed to dispossess the Chiriguanos who remained to settle in Samaipata and its vicinity. An Inca building destroyed by fire at Samaipata gives credence to this story. The date of the war is uncertain, although many authorities date the beginning of Chiriguano attacks on the Inca's eastern frontiers to the 1520s.
  The Spanish, along with Inca supporters, may have used Samaipata as a fortress and base camp as early as the 1570s, but formal Spanish settlement began in 1615 while the Chiriguanos were still threatening. A Spanish house is among the ruins.

The Samaipata archaeological site
The Samaipata archaeological site of about 20 hectares (49 acres) is divided into two parts: a ceremonial sector and an administrative/residential sector. Some of the construction of the Inca were built on earlier structures of the Chané.
  The ceremonial sector is in the northern part of the site. It is about 220 metres (720 ft) by 60 metres (200 ft) and consists mostly of a large rock saddle almost completely covered with carvings of both Inca and pre-Inca origin. The carvings include a variety of geometric and animal figures, walls, niches, and long canal-like carvings called "the spine of the serpent" or "el cascabel" (the rattle). Although not the most visually spectacular, the most important part of the ceremonial sector is the "coro de los sacerdotes" (choir of the priests) at the highest point of the rock. This consists of 18 niches, probably used as seats for individuals, carved into the rock. At the bottom of the rock are 21 carved rectangular niches which may have served as residences for priests or for the storage of ceremonial items. Other niches and alcoves are scattered around the ruin.
  The residential and administrative center makes up the southern part of the site. Samaipata may have been an Incan provincial capital and has all the infrastructure associated with that status. The most prominent feature is a large trapezoidal plaza about 100 metres (330 ft) on each side bordered on the south by a "kallanka," a rectangular building typical of Inca cities and symbolizing Incan political power. The kallanka, 70 metres (230 ft) in length and 16 metres (52 ft) wide was used for public gatherings, feasts, and housing visitors and soldiers. The kallanka at Samaipata is the second largest in Bolivia, but apparently construction was interrupted as the drainage canal and thatched roof were not completed.
  Also in this sector is the Acllahuasi, a nunnery for the sequestered women called Aclla, who were chosen to weave textiles, become wives of Inca nobles, participate in ceremonies, and, on occasion, be sacrificed in religious ceremonies. The existence of an Acllahuasi was typical of important Inca settlements.

Due to damage caused by visitors walking on the symbols cut into the rock and by erosion caused by water, the inner area is cordoned off to prevent more damage. However most of it can still be viewed.
  Access to the site is easy; many operators run buses from nearby Samaipata. There is a small entrance charge. The site is under the care of Stonewatch, which is a non profit society and academy for conservation and documentation of rock art.

Black Caiman
The black caiman (Melanosuchus niger) is a species of large crocodilian and, along with the American alligator, is one of the biggest extant members of the family Alligatoridae and order Crocodilia. It is a carnivorous reptile that lives along slow-moving rivers, lakes, seasonally flooded savannas of the Amazon basin, and in other freshwater habitats of South America. It is a quite large species, growing to at least 5 m (16 ft) and possibly up to 6 m (20 ft) in length, which makes it the second largest reptile in the Neotropical ecozone, next to the critically endangered Orinoco crocodile. As its common and scientific names imply, the black caiman has a dark coloration, as an adult. In some individuals, the dark coloration can appear almost black. It has grey to brown banding on the lower jaw. Juveniles have a more vibrant coloration compared to adults with prominent white to pale yellow banding on the flanks that remains present well into adulthood, at least more when compared to other species. The morphology is quite different from other caimans but the bony ridge that occurs in other caimans is present. The head is large and heavy, an advantage in catching larger prey.
  The black caiman is the largest predator in the Amazon ecosystem, preying on a variety of fish, reptiles, birds, and mammals. It is a generalist and apex predator, potentially capable of taking any animal within its range, including other predators. Few ecological studies have been carried out on the species, but the black caiman has its own ecological niche that enables coexistence without too much competition. As the largest predator in the ecosystem, it may also be a keystone species, playing an important role of maintaining the structure of the ecosystem. Reproduction takes place in the dry season. Females build a nest mound with an egg chamber, protecting the eggs from predators. Hatchlings form groups called pods, guarded by the presence of the female. These pods may contain individuals from other nests. Once common, it was hunted to near extinction primarily for its commercially valuable hide. It is now making a comeback, listed as Conservation Dependent. Overall a little-known species, it was not researched in any detail until the 1980s, when the leather-trade had already taken its toll. It is a dangerous species to humans, and attacks have occurred in the past.

The black caiman has dark-coloured, scaly skin. The skin coloration helps with camouflage during its nocturnal hunts, but may also help absorb heat. The lower jaw has grey banding (brown in older animals), and pale yellow or white bands are present across the flanks of the body, although these are much more prominent in juveniles. This banding fades only gradually as the animal matures. The bony ridge extending from above the eyes down the snout, as seen in other caiman, is present. The eyes are large, as befits its largely nocturnal activity, and brown in colour. Mothers on guard near their nests are tormented by blood-sucking flies that gather around their vulnerable eyes, leaving them bloodshot.
  The black caiman is structurally dissimilar to other caiman species, particularly in the shape of the skull. Compared to other caimans, it has distinctly larger eyes. Although the snout is relatively narrow, the skull (given the species' considerably larger size) is much larger overall than other caimans. Black caimans are relatively more robust than other crocodilians of comparable length. For example, a 3.9 m (13 ft) adult was found to have a considerably heavier and longer skull than a 4.8 m (16 ft) Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). There appears to varying of skull morphology in this species depending on the age, which is not uncommon in other modern crocodilians, and by gender, which is less often recorded, with adult males typically having much more massive skulls relative to their size than like-age females. Due to the differences, males have a stronger bite force and likely exploit a different, and larger, prey base than females. Young black caiman can be distinguished from large spectacled caimans by their proportionately larger head, as well as by the colour of the jaw, which is light coloured in the spectacled caiman and dark with three black spots in the black caiman.

The black caiman is one of the largest extant reptiles. It is the largest predator in the Amazon basin and possibly the largest member of the family Alligatoridae. It is also significantly larger than other caiman species. Most adult black caimans are 2.2 to 4.3 m (7 ft 3 in to 14 ft 1 in) in length, with a few old males growing larger than 5 m (16 ft 5 in). Sub-adult male specimens of around 2.5–3.4 m (8 ft 2 in–11 ft 2 in) will weigh roughly 95–100 kg (209–220 lb), around the same size as a mature female, but will quickly increase in bulk and weight. The average size of adult females at their nests was found to be 2.8 m (9 ft 2 in). Mid-sized mature males of 3.5–4 m (11 ft 6 in–13 ft 1 in) weigh approximately 300 kg (660 lb), while larger specimens easily exceed 400 to 500 kg (880 to 1,100 lb), being relatively bulky crocodilians. A relatively small adult male of a total length of 3.4 m (11 ft 2 in) weighed 98 kg (216 lb) while an adult male considered fairly large at a length of 4.2 m (13 ft 9 in) weighed approximately 350 kg (770 lb). Another sampling of subadult males found them to range in length from 2.1 to 2.8 m (6 ft 11 in to 9 ft 2 in), averaging 2.45 m (8 ft 0 in), and that they weighed from 26 to 86 kg (57 to 190 lb), averaging 48 kg (106 lb). The black caiman broadly overlaps in size with the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), although it is on average larger at maturity. In some areas (such as the Araguaia River) this species is consistently reported at 4 to 5 m (13 ft 1 in–16 ft 5 in) in length, much larger than the alligator (which rarely even reaches 4 meters), although specimens this size are uncommon. Several widely reported but unconfirmed (and probably largely anecdotal) sources report that the black caiman can grow to over 6.1 m (20 ft 0 in) in length and weigh up to 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). While it is unclear what the source for this maximum size, many scientific papers accept that this species can attain extreme sizes as such. In South America, two other crocodilians reportedly reach similar sizes: the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) and the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius).

Hunting and diet
Black caimans are apex predators with a generalist diet, and can take virtually any terrestrial and riparian animal found throughout their range. Similar to other large crocodilians, black caimans have even been observed catching and eating smaller species, such as the spectacled caiman and sometimes cannibalizing smaller individuals of their own kind. Hatchlings mostly eat small fish, frogs, and invertebrates such as crustaceans and insects, but with time and size graduate to eating larger fish, including piranhas, catfish, and perch, which remain a significant food source for all black caimans. Dietary studies have focused on young caimans (due both to their often being more common than large adults and to their being easier to handle), the largest specimen examined for stomach contents in one study being only 1.54 m (5.1 ft) notably under sexually mature size, which is at a minimum 2 m (6.6 ft) in smaller females. Although diverse prey is known to be captured by young black caimans, dietary studies have shown snails often dominate the diet of young caiman, followed by quite small fish. Fish were the main prey of black caimans of over subadult size in Manú National Park, Peru. Various prey will be taken by availability, includes snakes, turtles, birds and mammals, the latter two mainly when they come to drink at the river banks. Mammalian prey mostly include common Amazonian species such as various monkeys, sloths, armadillos, pacas, agoutis, coatis, and capybaras. Larger specimens can virtually take any South American terrestrial or riparian vertebrate unfortunate enough to encounter them. Large prey can include other species of caiman, deer, peccaries, tapirs, anacondas, giant otters, and domestic animals including pigs, cattle, horses and dogs. Although rare fatal attacks on cougars or even jaguars have been reported, very little evidence exists of such predation, and cats are likely to avoid ponds with black caimans, suggesting that adults of this species are higher in the food chain than even the jaguar. Where capybara and white-lipped peccary herds are common, they are reportedly among the most common prey item for large adults. Evidence has suggested fairly large river turtles can be counted among the prey of adult black caimans, the bite force of which is apparently sufficient to shatter a turtle shell. Scars on Amazon river dolphins suggest they may occasionally be attacked by black caimans. Compared to the smaller caiman species, the black caiman more often hunts terrestrially at night, using its acute hearing and sight. As with all crocodilian species, their teeth are designed to grab but not chew, so they generally try to swallow their food whole after drowning or crushing it. Large prey that cannot be swallowed whole are often stored so the flesh will rot enough to allow the caiman to take bites out of the flesh.

At the end of the dry season, females build a nest of soil and vegetation, which is about 1.5 meters (4.9 feet) across and 0.75 meters (2.5 feet) wide. They lay up to 65 eggs (though usually somewhere between 30 and 60), which hatch in about six weeks, at the beginning of the wet season, when newly flooded marshes provide ideal habitat for the juveniles once hatched. The eggs are quite large, averaging 144 g (5.1 oz) in weight. Unguarded clutches (when the mother goes off to hunt) are readily devoured by a wide array of animals, regularly including mammals such as South American coatis (Nasua nasua) or large rodents, egg-preying snakes and birds such as herons and vultures. Occasionally predators are caught and killed by the mother caiman. Hatching is said to occur between 42 and 90 days after the eggs are laid. It is well documented that, as with other crocodilians, caimans frequently move their young from the nest in their mouths after hatching (whence the erroneous belief that they eat their young), and transport them to a safe pool. The mother will assist chirping, unhatched young to break out of the leathery eggs, by delicately breaking the eggs between her teeth. She will try to look after her young for several months but the baby caimans are largely independent and most do not survive to maturity. Baby black caimans are subject to predation even more regularly after they hatch, facing many of the same mesopredators, as well any other crocodilian (including those of their own species), large snake or large, carnivorous fish that they encounter. Predation is so common that black caimans count on their young to survive via safety in numbers. The female black caiman only breeds once every 2 to 3 years.

Interspecific predatory relationships
Many predators, including various fish, mammal, reptile and even amphibian species, feed on caiman eggs and hatchlings. Once the black caiman attains a length of a few feet, it has few natural predators. Large anacondas may take an occasional young caiman of this species. The jaguar (Panthera onca), being a known predator of all other caiman species, is the only primary predatory threat to black caimans, with several records of predation on young black caimans and eggs and a single reported instance of an adult male black caiman, measuring 3.8 m (12 ft), having fallen prey to a large jaguar. However, very large black caimans, 4.3 m (14 ft 1 in) or more in length, have no natural predators, as is true of other similarly-sized crocodilian species given the size, weight, thick hide and immense strength and may, in rare instances, themselves prey upon jaguars.

Conservation status and threats
Humans hunt black caimans for leather or meat. This species was classified as Endangered in the 1970s due to the high demand for its well-marked skin. The trade in black caiman leather peaked from the 1950s to 1970s, when the smaller but much more common spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) became the more commonly hunted species. Local people still trade black caiman skins and meat today at a small scale but the species has rebounded overall from the overhunting in the past. That black caimans lay, on average, around 40 eggs has helped them recover to some degree. Perhaps an equal continuing threat is habitat destruction, since development and clear-cutting is now epidemic in South America. Spectacled caimans have now filled the niche of crocodilian predator of fish in many areas. Due to their greater numbers and faster reproductive abilities, the Spectacled populations are locally outcompeting black caimans, although the larger species dominates in a one-on-one basis. Persistent management is needed to control caiman-hunting and is quite difficult to enforce effectively. After the depletion of the black caiman population, piranhas and capybaras, having lost perhaps their primary predator, reached unnaturally high numbers. This has, in turn, led to increased agricultural and livestock losses.
  Compounding the conservation issues it faces, this species occasionally preys on humans. Most tales are poorly documented and unconfirmed but, given this species' formidable size, predation on humans can be fatal.
  The species is uncommon in captivity and breeding it has proven to be a challenge. The first captive breeding outside its native range was at Aalborg Zoo in 2013.

Toborochi - Ceiba speciosa
The silk floss tree (Ceiba speciosa, formerly Chorisia speciosa), is a species of deciduous tree native to the tropical and subtropical forests of South America. It has several local common names, such as palo borracho (in Spanish literally "drunken stick"), samu'ũ (in Guarani) or paineira (in Brazilian Portuguese). In Bolivia, it is called toborochi, meaning "tree of refuge" or "sheltering tree". It belongs to the same family as the baobab and the kapok. Another tree of the same genus, Ceiba chodatii, is often referred to by the same common names.

The natural habitat of the silk floss tree is the north-east of Argentina, east of Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and southern Brazil. It is resistant to drought and moderate cold. It grows fast in spurts when water is abundant, and sometimes reaches more than 25 metres (82 ft) in height. Its trunk is bottle-shaped, generally bulging in its lower third, measuring up to 2 metres (7 ft) in girth. The trunk is also studded with thick, sharp conical prickles which deter wild animals from climbing the trees. In younger trees, the trunk is green due to its high chlorophyll content, which makes it capable of performing photosynthesis when leaves are absent; with age it turns to gray.

Leaves, stems, and flowers
The branches tend to be horizontal and are also covered with prickles. The leaves are composed of five to seven long leaflets. The flowers are creamy-whitish in the center and pink towards the tips of their five petals. They measure 10 to 15 centimetres (4 to 6 in) in diameter and their shape is superficially similar to hibiscus flowers. Their nectar is known to attract insect pollinators, as well as hummingbirds. Ceiba speciosa flowers are in bloom between February and May (in its native Southern Hemisphere), but can also bloom at other times of the year. The flowers of the related Ceiba chodatii are similar in form and size, but their color goes from creamy white centers to yellow tips. As a deciduous tree, it is completely bare of leaves and flowers during the winter months, especially when growing outside of its native South America habitat.

The fruits are lignous ovoid capsules, 20 centimetres (8 in) long, which contain bean-sized black seeds surrounded by a mass of fibrous, fluffy matter reminiscent of cotton or silk.

The cotton inside the capsules, although not of as good quality as that of the kapok tree, has been used as stuffing (density = 0.27 g/cm³). The wood can be used to make canoes, as wood pulp, and to make paper. The bark has been used to make ropes. From the seeds it is possible to obtain vegetable oil (both edible and industrially useful).
  The silk floss tree is cultivated mostly for ornamental purposes. Outside of private gardens around the world, it is often planted along urban streets in subtropical areas such as in Spain, South Africa, Australia, northern New Zealand and the southern USA, although its prickled trunks and limbs require safety buffer zones, especially around the trunks, in order to protect people and domesticated animals from its prickles. Ceiba speciosa is added to some versions of the hallucinogenic drink Ayahuasca.