Bolivia Currency 50 Bolivianos banknote 2018

Bolivia Currency 50 Bolivianos banknote 2018 National Heroes
Bolivia Currency 50 Bolivianos banknote 2018 Andean Flamingo

Currency of Bolivia 50 Bolivianos banknote 2018
Central Bank of Bolivia - Banco Central de Bolivia
"Famous Figures of the Liberation Movement & Flora and Fauna & National Heritage"

Obverse: Portraits of National Heroes - José Manuel Baca "Cañoto", Bruno Racua, Pablo Zárate Willka. In the centre is the Incallajta Fortress (Fortaleza de Inkallajta), a set of buildings originally erected by the Incas between 1463 and 1472 that is now an archaeological monument.

Reverse: The Nevado Sajama (an extinct volcano), the rare and endangered Andean Flamingo, a species native to the Andes and a Quinua real plant (or "Quinoa" in English) An image of the Andean Flamingo is displayed using optically variable ink, SPARK® Live Rolling Bar.

Watermark: José Manuel Baca "Cañoto", guitar, and electrotype 50.
Windowed security thread with demetalized 50 and José Manuel Baca "Cañoto".
Colour: Blue.
Printer: Oberthur Fiduciaire, France. 
Size: 140 x 70 mm. 
Date of issue: October 15, 2018.
Andean FlamingoWatermark: José Manuel Baca "Cañoto", guitar, and electrotype 50

Windowed security thread with demetalized 50 and José Manuel Baca "Cañoto"

Bolivian Currency 50 Bolivianos banknote 2018 Ultraviolet LightBolivia 50 Bolivianos banknote 2018 Ultraviolet Light




Pablo Zárate Willka
Pablo Zárate Willka
Pablo Zárate Willka (d. 1905), an Aymara Indian from the Bolivian Altiplano who led an Indian uprising that grew out of the Bolivian Civil War (1899). Willka is an archaic Aymara word, meaning "greatness" or "eminence," that had previously been used by Indian protest leaders, including Luciano Willka in 1870–1871. We now know that the more important Willka of 1899 was Pablo Zárate, born on an unknown date in Imillaimilla, between Sicasica, La Paz, and Eucaliptus, Oruro.
  Zárate, assuming the name Willka, originally joined the federalist cause led by José Manuel Pando, later president of Bolivia, whose main preoccupation was to move the capital from Sucre to La Paz. But Zárate Willka and his Indian contingents soon demanded social changes, including the return of Indian communal lands lost several decades earlier. The uprising turned violent and became extensive. After Zárate Willka's capture in April 1899, the revolt collapsed. He died either while escaping from jail or being transported to another location.


José Manuel Baca "Cañoto"
José Manuel Baca "Cañoto"
José Manuel Baca "Cañoto" (Santa Cruz, 1790-1854), guerrilla, montonero, singer and poet, who at his 20 years participated in the Membiray uprising (1810), participated in the Battle of La Florida (1814), the campaign of Chiquitos (1815) and El Pari (1816). Bold and witty, he constantly harassed the Royalist army. Exiled in the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata, he was captain of the troop of gauchos de Güemes and on his return, along with other patriots, he fought until independence.




Bruno Racua
Bruno Racua
Bruno Racua (a Bolivian who was proclaimed a National Hero for his heroism in fighting Brazilian forces in the Battle of Bahia)
Tacana Indians hero, worker of the Sirouena that was part of the Porvenir Column at the Battle of Bahia (1902), during the Acre War ("The War of the Acre" was a border conflict between Bolivia and the First Brazilian Republic over the Acre Region, which was rich in rubber and gold deposits). With a group of archers, he attacked and set fire to the ammunition stores of the enemy, an action that halted the advance of separatist groups and consolidated Bolivian sovereignty over what is now Pando.



Incallajta Fortress - Fortaleza de Inkallajta
Incallajta Fortress - Fortaleza de Inkallajta
The archeological site of Incallajta, with a surface area of 67 hectares, is among the main Inca sites in the country. Once they had conquered the Collao territories, the Incas marched deep into the semi-tropical valleys of what now are the Cochabamba and Santa Cruz states. There, they established a series of cities, specially fortified to control de advances of the Chiriguano indians. The Incas created, among other sites, Inca Racay, near Sipesipe in the state of Cochabamba, where they also built the fortified city of Incallajta. In the state of Santa Cruz they settled in Samaipata (WHS). Incallajta was probably built around 1463 and 1472 during the rule of Tupa Inca Yupanqui and later reconstructed by the Inca Huayana Capac. According to the historian José de Mesa, Incallajta can be identified as the Pocona fortress mentioned by the Spanish chronicler Sarmiento de Gamboa. The site is an anormous complex, made of stone and similar to the many others that exist in the Cuzco area, specially Macchu Picchu. It has close to forty buildings and a defensive wall. The ruins that are known best today belong to the Kalanka, a big space that was probably covered and has a longitude of 70meters, 12 doors and 44 niches. The only architectural luxury of this big spaces –according to Erland Nordenskiöld, which was the first on to cientifically describe them in 1913-14– are the niches, so characteristic of Inca architecture. This is the bigges Inca complex on Bolivian territory. Besides the Kallanka, it has habitational, defensive, military, religious agricultural –tacanas and circular silos– areas and towers for astronomical use. The archeological site of Incallajta was the biggest and most important administrative center of the region, with the purpose of reaching the lower lands of our territory.


Nevado Sajama
Nevado Sajama is an extinct stratovolcano and the highest peak in Bolivia. The mountain is located in the Oruro Department, Sajama Canton. It is situated in Sajama National Park and is a composite volcano consisting of a stratovolcano on top of several lava domes. It is not clear when it erupted last but it may have been during the Pleistocene or Holocene.
  The mountain is covered by an ice cap and Polylepis tarapacana trees occur up to 5,000 metres (16,000 ft) height.

Geography and geomorphology
Nevado Sajama is located in the Sajama canton of the Oruro Department in Bolivia, 20 metres (66 ft) away from the border with Chile. Cholcani volcano lies southeast of Sajama and another neighbouring volcano, Pomerape, resembles Sajama in its appearance. A road runs along the southeastern flank of the volcano, with additional roads completing a circle around Sajama. The town of Sajama lies on its western foot, with further villages at Caripe northeast and Lagunas southwest of the mountain; there are also a number of farms.
  In Bolivia, the Andes mountain chain splits up into two branches separated by a 3,500–4,000 metres (11,500–13,100 ft) high plateau, the Altiplano. Nevado Sajama lies in the Western Andes of Bolivia and in the western side of the Altiplano; more specifically the mountain is located before the Western Cordillera.
  Nevado Sajama rises about 2.2 kilometres (1.4 mi) from the surrounding terrain to a height of 6,542 metres (21,463 ft) (earlier estimates of its height are 6,572 metres (21,562 ft)), making it the highest mountain of Bolivia. Below 4,200 metres (13,800 ft) the mountain is characterized by parasitic vents and a cover of lava fragments and volcanic ash. Two secondary summits 5,031 metres (16,506 ft) and 5,161 metres (16,932 ft) occur west and east-northeast from Sajama respectively; the former is named Cerro Huisalla and the second is called Huayna Potosi. The mountain has a conical shape and is capped by a summit crater but other records do not indicate the presence of a crater. The Patokho, Huaqui Jihuata and Phajokhoni valleys are located on the eastern flank; at lower elevations the whole volcano features glacially deepened valleys.
  The terrain is characterized by a continuous ice cover in the central sector of the mountain, exposures of bedrock, deposits and rock glaciers in some sites, alluvial fans and scree in the periphery of Sajama and moraines forming a girdle around the upper sector of Sajama. The ground moraines are the most prominent moraines on Sajama, and have varying colours depending on the source of their component rocks. Vegetation and small lakes occur in their proximity, while other parts are unvegetated. They mostly occur within glacial valleys, but some appear to have formed underneath small plateau ice caps on flatter terrain.
  A number of wetlands called bofedales occur on the mountain. Starting in the lake Laguna Huana Kkota on the northwestern foot of Sajama, the Tomarapi River flows first northeastward, then east, south and southeast around the northern and eastern flanks of the volcano; the Sicuyani River which originates on Sajama joins it there. The southern flanks give rise to the Huaythana River which flows directly south and then makes a sharp turn to the east. On the western side of the volcano originates the Sajama River which flows due south and increasingly turns southeast before joining the Lauca River. The other rivers draining Sajama and its ice cap also eventually join the Lauca River and end in the Salar de Coipasa.


Andean flamingo
The Andean flamingo (Phoenicoparrus andinus) is one of the rarest flamingos in the world. It lives in the Andes mountains of South America. Until 2014, it was classified in genus Phoenicopterus. It is closely related to James's flamingo, and the two make up the genus Phoenicoparrus. The Chilean flamingo, Andean flamingo, and James's flamingo are all sympatric, and all live in colonies (including shared nesting areas).
  The flamingo has a pale pink body with brighter upperparts, deep vinaceous-pink lower neck, breast, and wing coverts. It is the only flamingo species with yellow legs and three-toed feet. The bill of the Andean flamingo is pale yellow and black.

Feeding
These flamingos are filter feeders and their diet ranges over the entire spectrum of available foods, from fish to invertebrates, from vascular plants to microscopic algae.
  The flamingos feed from the bottom layer of the lake for small particles, mainly diatoms. They have a deep-keeled bill; the upper mandible is narrower than the lower, creating a gape on the dorsal surface of the bill. The bill morphology facilitates feeding of diatoms through inertial impaction. This mechanism entails that food particles denser than water, such as diatoms, would impact the filtering surface in the bill, causing water to flow out of the mouth and leaving diatoms in the flamingo's bill. The flamingos forage in shallow salty waters for resources. They exhibit the most flexible foraging pattern compared to that of the Chilean and James's flamingos.
  When grouping the Andean flamingos with Chilean flamingos or James's flamingos, Andean flamingos adopt the foraging patterns of the species with which it is grouped. Thus, when grouped with Chilean flamingos, they use a moderate and deep foraging depth strategy more than or the same as expected. If they are grouped with James's flamingos, they adopt the edge and the shallow foraging strategy. However, the overall foraging behavior of Andean flamingos remains unclear.

Distribution, habitat, and movements
This Andean flamingo is native to the wetlands of the high Andes mountain range from southern Peru to northwestern Argentina and northern Chile. Andean flamingos are migratory, with the ability to travel up to 700 miles in one day. In the summer, they live in salt lakes, and migrate to the lower wetlands for the winter. The cause of this migration from summer to winter is possibly due to the extreme aridity of salt flats during the winter. The path of migration is unknown, but it is thought to occur between the Chilean breeding grounds and the wetlands of central and western Argentina.

Status and conservation
The Andean flamingo is considered a vulnerable species due to the mining business and human disturbances causing changes in its habitat.

Mining
The Andean flamingo's habitat is constantly changing due to human activity. The primary threat to the flamingo population is mining excavations, which occur at the end of the summer rainy season. The habitat of the Andean flamingo is rich in boron compounds, specifically borax. Borax is fairly toxic at high dosages to animals such as the Andean flamingo, but not to humans. Studies testing the effects of borax exposure in animals show that excess boron causes skeletal malformations, cardiovascular defects, and degeneration of testes. Borax is a derivative of boric acid; a study comparing the toxicology of borates determined that salts of boric acid produce comparable effects. A study on the mining environment determined as little as 5 g of borax can produce adverse effects in animal populations, but human workers remain unaffected at these levels. Therefore, the miners remain unaffected while the animals suffer from developmental and reproductive toxicity.
  A study on Salinas Lake in Peru showed that mining companies have established themselves adjacent to the flamingos' nesting sites, and some mining is performed near flamingo breeding grounds and feeding sites. Flamingos abandoned their nesting sites if mining was initiated after the establishment of nesting colonies and in close proximity. An increase of hydrocarbon exploration resulted in a decreased success rate for breeding. Less than 1% of the flamingos observed were juveniles. The decreased reproductive success may be due to borax exposure or to an altered environment caused by bulldozers disturbing the lake bed. Mining creates a muddy environment, which entraps flamingos, thus increasing mortality. Surveys conducted on residents near the mining activities report sightings of dead flamingos exhumed by the bulldozers.

  The extraction process also affects the water availability. Andean flamingos filter surface water for food, but borax mining pollutes this water. Along with the pollution, the extractions expedite the removal of lake moisture. By limiting the amount of water in the lake, mining companies can increase visibility, thus contributing to more optimal mining. A study comparing the correlation between water availability and flamingo population determined that the number of flamingos was strongly correlated to the proportion of water in the lake. With an insufficient food supply and a disturbed habitat, the decrease in offspring seems inevitable.

Human disturbance
Not only are the flamingos' offspring numbers diminished by mining activities, but they are also affected by the egg collection by locals. This illegal hunting has increased over time due to an increase in international demand for flamingo eggs. Poaching is conducted by organized groups within Chile; the group members trap the flamingos and export them to Europe, the United States, and other overseas destinations. The exportation process in conducted mainly in the Altiplano, which is an area that has deep cultural roots in egg poaching. During the reproductive season, local families also take eggs from flamingo nests. The removal of eggs can disturb the nesting process and cause the flamingo to abandon its nest, even if some eggs remain. Egg removal might be acceptable if the local populations were malnourished, but studies on the diets of the local people show no protein deficiency. In the area of study, the common people raise llamas and alpacas, which offer a higher content of protein than flamingo eggs.
  Alongside mining activities, unregulated tourism has taken its toll on the flamingos' habitat. Over time, numerous peat bogs have developed throughout the land. These bogs gradually build up and begin to overflow into the lake. When the bogs enter the lake, they decrease the surface area of the water and prevent the flamingos from entering the lake to feed. As a result of the mining and the tourism, new infrastructure, such as highways, are being built into the Andes. Highways now run alongside the flamingos' habitat. With the addition of these roads, accessibility to the flamingos' habitat increases, leading to more commercial mining and tourism, which in turn results in detrimental effects to the Andean flamingo population. The development of new infrastructure has caused severe fragmentation of the lake, diminishing the biodiversity, and increasing the possibility of extinction for all species.
  The demand for surface and underground water, energy production, and transportation, as well as unregulated tourism, have all increased in the last two decades. These increases were documented to be most significant in Chile, the main location for Andean flamingo breeding colonies. As a consequence, these areas are concentrated with toxic compounds due to mineral and hydrocarbon exploration. Since the 1980s, the number of successful breeding colonies and the total production of chicks of Andean flamingos declined. As a result, the Andean flamingos are threatened species.

Conservation plans
According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, the Andean flamingo is an "insufficiently known species." Thus, despite being negatively affected for at least the previous two decades, it was finally declared endangered in September 2010. In this announcement, it was stated that this flamingo would be protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Most of the areas in which the flamingos reside, both in the summer and the winter, have been covered by the implementation of national parks. However, these parks are absent in habitats incurring changes. Thus, the main breeding grounds are still susceptible to outside disturbances that decrease the population of the flamingos. Because the Andean flamingo is a recent addition to the endangered species list, few plans have been implemented to protect their species. However, the National Institution of Natural Resources is currently developing a plan. This group is working with conservationists to find a way to solve the problems of borate extraction and egg collecting and poaching. The plan consists of an environmental education strategy to inform businessmen, workers, villagers, and any other people who pose as a threat to the flamingos. Local authorities in the Salinas Lake district have created an outpost to prevent illicit actions and to find possible solutions to present problems. Creation of national parks has decreased the egg collecting; however, environmental education will be necessary to completely eliminate this activity.
  The Flamingo Specialist Group, established in 1971, is actively trying to inform the public on the vulnerability of flamingos. They produce an annual newsletter to tell readers the current status of several species. In 2000, this group conducted a census that revealed a total population less than 34,000 Andean flamingos, giving them the label of most rare species. Recently, this group has joined sides with the International Union for Conservation of Nature to create an action plan for the flamingos. A meeting was held in Miami, Florida, in 2000 to develop a group to control an action place to protect the six species and subspecies of flamingos.
  Under the auspices of the Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals, also known as the Bonn Convention, the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on the Conservation of High Andean Flamingos and their Habitats was concluded and came into effect on 4 December 2008. The MoU covers Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, and Peru. As of August 2012, Bolivia, Chile, and Peru have signed the MoU. The MoU aims to improve the conservation status of the species and their habitats through coordinated and concerted actions across the range.


Quinoa
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, from Quechua kinwa or kinuwa) is a flowering plant in the amaranth family. It is a herbaceous annual plant grown as a grain crop primarily for its edible seeds. Quinoa is not a grass, but rather a pseudocereal botanically related to spinach and amaranth (Amaranthus spp.).
  Quinoa provides protein, dietary fiber, B vitamins, and dietary minerals in rich amounts above those of wheat, corn, rice, or oats. It is gluten-free. After harvest, the seeds are processed to remove the bitter-tasting outer seed coat.
  Quinoa originated in the Andean region of northwestern South America, and was domesticated 3,000 to 4,000 years ago for human consumption in the Lake Titicaca basin of Peru and Bolivia, although archaeological evidence shows livestock uses 5,200 to 7,000 years ago.

History and culture
Quinoa was first domesticated by Andean peoples around 3,000 to 4,000 years ago. It has been an important staple in the Andean cultures, where the plant is indigenous, but relatively obscure to the rest of the world. The Incas, who held the crop to be sacred, referred to it as chisoya mama or "mother of all grains", and it was the Inca emperor who would traditionally sow the first seeds of the season using "golden implements".
  During the Spanish conquest of South America, the colonists scorned it as "food for Indians", and suppressed its cultivation, due to its status within indigenous religious ceremonies. The conquistadors forbade quinoa cultivation at one point, and the Incas were forced to grow wheat instead.
  The United Nations General Assembly declared 2013 as the "International Year of Quinoa" in recognition of the ancestral practices of the Andean people, who have preserved it as a food for present and future generations, through knowledge and practices of living in harmony with nature. The objective was to draw the world’s attention to the role that quinoa could play in providing food security, nutrition and poverty eradication in support of achieving Millennium Development Goals. Some academic commentary emphasised, however, that quinoa production could have ecological and social drawbacks in its native regions, and that these problems needed to be tackled.